VDL is realising a long haulage series-hybrid e-coach with ICE range extender and zero-emissions driving range capability, enabling its operation in a Zero Urban Emission Zone (ZUEZ) within cities with this restriction/regulation. A recent publication regarding “optimal powertrain sizing of series hybrid coach running on diesel and HVO for lifetime carbon footpring and total cost minimisation” together with VUB and VDL is available here.
In the Series Hybrid configuration implemented by VDL, the combustion engine is only used to drive the electric generator that charges the battery used by the eMotor. There is no mechanical connection between the engine and the wheels, i.e., the vehicle is only moved by the eMotor.
The series‑hybrid architecture, with topology illustrated in Figure 1, will be equipped with the following main components and functionalities:
- A Hybrid Diesel engine of 157 kW, 4.5 L Euro VI, capable of running on EN15940 alternative fuels. This engine is combined with a 3-phase generator of 154 kW, a battery pack of ~240 kWh, e‑auxiliaries and multiple cooling systems.
- An e-drive consisting of two integrated e-motors of ~300 kW peak power each, with e-boosting and regenerative capabilities.
- Battery charging and temperature (pre-)conditioning of the passenger cabin and e-powertrain for a stationary vehicle by means of the generator and/or charging infrastructure.
- External charging options by using a standardized Combined Charging System (CCS) connector for 400 A / 250 kW fast charging (charging time will be approximately 55 minutes for 85 % discharge).
- Charge sustaining and depleting drive strategies, plus optimized engine CO2 emissions set points will be implemented.
Figure 1 System topology for the long haulage series‑hybrid e‑coach with ICE range extender
The vehicle is to adhere to:
- Series diesel-hybrid
- 100km full-electric @ 80km/h
- ~1000km total range
with 100km/h top speed
- 11% energy savings w.r.t. MY18 FHD2
The objectives of VDL are:
>10% energy saving vs reference vehicle VDL Bus &Coach Futura FHD2- MY 2018 – Euro 6 demonstrated in new to develop ZEUZ hybrid Coach demonstrator.
Realize Zero emission capability / Electric charging for a long-distance Hybrid Coach (PHEV) in cities.
Optimization of energy/ hybrid mode management by using model based Long Range Provider, dynamic traffic information- and battery model.
Figure 2 – VDL objectives